Ali A. Allawi über ein grundlegendes Problem islamischen gesellschaftlichen Selbstverständnisses:

„No Muslim state has proclaimed that its adherence to Islamic norms of conduct and behaviour has been the essential factor in its success in worldly matters. Thus, where Muslim countries have excelled in (relative terms), say in Malaysia, the cause is partly attributed to ‚Asian,‛ rather than to Islamic, values.‟[note]Ali A. Allawi: The Crisis of Islamic Civilization. New Haven und London 2009, 145.[/note]

Was folgt daraus?